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Keynote Lectures

Tailoring Light Emission with Metasurfaces
Jean-Jacques Greffet, Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique Graduate School, Université Paris-Saclay, France

Quantum Optical Heat Machines: Engines, Refrigerators, Transistors
Gershon Kurizki, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Dieter Bimberg, Bimberg Chinese-German Center for Green Photonics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CIOMP and Center of Nanophotonics, TU Berlin, Germany


Enzo Di Fabrizio, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy



Tailoring Light Emission with Metasurfaces

Jean-Jacques Greffet
Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique Graduate School, Université Paris-Saclay

Brief Bio
Jean-Jacques Greffet received his PhD in solid state physics in 1988 from Université Paris-Sud. He is a professor at Institut d'Optique, Université Paris-Saclay and a senior member of Institut Universitaire de France. He made several contributions to light scattering of electromagnetic waves and to the theory of near-field microscopy. He then explored the role of surface phonon polaritons to modify near-field radiative heat transfer and discovered coherent thermal emission. He contributed to the field of nanoantennas to control lifetime and directional emission of quantum emitters. His current research interests deals with revisiting fundamental quantum optics experiments with surface plasmons (wave-particle duality, Hong Ou Mandel experiment, photon-plasmon entanglement, electrical emission by tunnel effect) and controlling light-matter interaction at the nanoscale using resonators and collective effects. He is an OSA fellow and the recipient of the Servant prize of the french Academy of Science.

A large number of light sources such as LEDs or incandescent sources operate in the spontaneous emission regime. In this regime, the microscopic emission events are uncorrelated leading to emission of incoherent fields with uncontrolled emission dynamics.  In the case of a single emitter such as an atom or a molecule, it is known that spontaneous emission can be modified by coupling the emitter to a cavity or resonant nanoantenna. In this talk, we consider tailoring light emission by a macroscopic ensemble of thermalized emitters by coupling them to a resonant metasurface. We will discuss how to control spatial coherence, temporal coherence and time dynamics of the emission of this ensemble.



Quantum Optical Heat Machines: Engines, Refrigerators, Transistors

Gershon Kurizki
Weizmann Institute of Science

Brief Bio
Professor Gershon Kurizki joined the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) in 1985, where he became tenured Professor in 1991. He holds the G.W. Dunne Professorial Chair in Quantum Optics at WIS since 1998. His fields of international renown include Quantum Thermodynamics and Control of Open Quantum-Systems; Quantum Optics and Quantum Light-Matter Interactions. He has published over 60 high-profile articles (Phys.Rev.Letters, Nature and PNAS) out of 250 publications thus far (h-index: 56; i-10 index: 162, 11000 citations). He has delivered over 250 invited and plenary talks at international conferences/ workshops so far. His recognition includes: the Optical Society of America Fellowship (since 1999); the American Physical Society (APS) Fellowship (since 2002); the UK Institute of Physics Fellowship (since 2004); the Lamb Award in Laser Physics and Quantum Optics (2008); the Humboldt-Meitner Award in Atomic Physics (2009). He publishes philosophical essays and poetry and has written a popular science book (“The Quantum Matrix” Oxford Univ. Press (2020)). Kurizki’s research on the control of open quantum systems, their bath-induced interactions and thermodynamic aspects has yielded a number of groundbreaking discoveries, supported by experiment, that have impacted diverse fields and deepened our understanding of quantum system-bath interactions. One intriguing insight is that “the bath is more a friend than a foe”: it can be a probe, a diagnostic tool or a resource of quantumness. His discoveries have been recognized by his APS Fellow citation (2002): "For discovering innovative approaches to the control of the quantum properties of fields interacting with matter"; the Lamb Award citation (2008): "For his discovery of the anti-Zeno effect and his pioneering contributions to the theory of quantum measurements and decoherence control in quantum open systems " and the Meitner- Humboldt Award laudatio (2009): “In recognition of his exceptional achievements in quantum optics, his ground-breaking contributions to the control of decoherence and his pioneering investigations of the Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in quantum open systems as links between the quantum and classical pictures of the world." 

The upsurge of interest in the field known as quantum thermodynamics (QTD) has not yet resolved the key issue: Are there truly advantageous quantum resources that can boost the performance of thermodynamic (TD) machines? The resolution of this issue requires a grasp of the principles and bounds that rule quantum machines powered by heat[1]. To this end, we invoke the work-capacity of  quantum states[2] and propose a quantum-optical procedure for its conversion  via coherent control and quantum measurements[3] into work. This procedure may allow us to maximize the work extractable from heat machines, as well as operate them as quantum heat transistors or heat diodes. The inverse regime of such machines entails cold-bath refrigeration [4] by heat transfer to a hotter bath. We find that, contrary to common claims, quantum advantage in machines[5] is very hard to come by. We have identified such an advantage, obtained by driving the working medium at a fast rate compatible with the non-Markovian anti-Zeno regime[6-7]. This quantum advantage is manifest by a nearly 10-fold boost in power output. Ongoing experimental efforts to implement the foregoing schemes will be surveyed.

[1] D. Gelbwaser, W. Niedenzu, and G. Kurizki, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 64, 329 (2015): 136 citations; A.Ghosh, D.Gelbwaser, W. Niedenzu, A. Lvovski, I. Mazets, M.O. Scully and G. Kurizki, PNAS 115, 9941 (2018):18 citations.
[2] W. Niedenzu, V. Mukherjee, A. Ghosh, A.G. Kofman, and G. Kurizki, Nat. Commun. 9, 165 (2018): 99 citations; NJP 18, 083012 (2016): 80 citations.
[3] T. Opatrný, G. Kurizki, and D.-G. Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 61, 032302 (2000): 393 citations.
[4] M. Kolar, D. Gelbwaser, R. Alicki, and G. Kurizki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 090601 (2012): 89 citations; D. Gelbwaser, R. Alicki, G .Kurizki, PRE 87, 012140 (2013): 129 citations.
[5] G.Kurizki et al, PNAS 112, 3866 (2015): 425 citations. 
[6] N. Erez, G. Gordon, M. Nest, and G. Kurizki, Nature 452, 724 (2008): 198 citations; A.G. Kofman and G. Kurizki, Nature 405, 546 (2000): 519 citations.
[7] V.Mukherjee, A.G. Kofman and G. Kurizki, Commun. Phys. 3, 1 (2020). 



Energy Efficient Multi Terabit Photonics: Quantum Dots at Work

Dieter Bimberg
Bimberg Chinese-German Center for Green Photonics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CIOMP and Center of Nanophotonics, TU Berlin

Brief Bio
Dieter H. Bimberg is the Founding Director of the Center of Nanophotonics at TU Berlin and serves now as CEO of the new “Bimberg Chinese-German Center for Green Photonics” at CIOMP. He was chairman of the Department of Solid State Physics at TUB from 1991 to 2012. His research interests include the growth and physics of nanostructures and nanophotonic devices, ultrahigh speed and energy efficient photonic devices for information systems, like quantum dot based mode-locked lasers and DFB lasers and ultimate nanoflash memories based on quantum dots. He has authored more than 1500 papers, 61 patents, and 7 books resulting in more than 60,000 citations and a Hirsch factor of 111. His honors include the Russian State Prize in Science and Technology 2001, his election to the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 2004, to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2011, to the American Academy of Engineering in 2014, to the American Academy of Inventors 2016. He was elected as Fellow of the American Physical Society and IEEE in 2004 and 2010, respectively. He received the Max-Born-Award and Medal 2006, awarded jointly by IoP and DPG, the William Streifer Award of the Photonics Society of IEEE in 2010, the UNESCO Nanoscience Award and Medal 2012, Heinrich-Welker-Award 2015 and Nick Holonyak jr. Award of OSA in 2018. In 2019 he received the IEEE Nishizaza Award and Medal and in 2020 the Stern-Gerlach Medal of German Physical Society.

The rapidly growing demand for higher data rates in metropolitan area networks, local area networks, and optical access networks, requires novel ultra-high bit rate sources, which are more energy efficient than any semiconductor laser sources presently existing. Quantum Dot Lasers based on GaAs emit up to the O-band at 1.3 µm. They show record low threshold current density, and complete temperature stability up to 80°C. Emission from the saturated ground state shows a hat-like structure with intensity differences of the longitudinal modes below 0.5 db. Passive mode-locking generates pulses down to the sub- ps range at repetition rates up to 90 GHz.  Optical self-feed-back reduces the jitter to 200 fs and reach electrical linewidth of 2 kHz. PML QD-lasers are also excellent microwave sources showing the same extremely small phase noise as the optical pulses. Multiplexed 80 Gbit/s RZ OOK based on PML-QDLs and Mach-Zehnder modulators show a S/N of 12, rms timing jitter of 452 fs and BER below 10exp-9. Data transmission across 45 km using RZ Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (DQPSK) with BER below 10exp-11 is demonstrated. The hat spectrum of one single laser of several tens of closely spaced narrow is a pulse source for bit rates ~ 6 TBit/s.



Nanostructures, Few Molecules Detection and Imaging

Enzo Di Fabrizio
Polytechnic of Turin

Brief Bio
Enzo Di Fabrizio is full professor at DISAT division of Turin Polytechnique since 2020.  Formerly he was at PSE Division of KAUST since March 2013. In Italy he is full professor of Physics (since March 2013 in leave of absence) (MIUR SSD FIS/01 http://cercauniversita.cineca.it/php5/docenti/cerca.php - website of Italian Ministry of University and Research-) at the University Magna Graecia in Catanzaro (http://www.unicz.it/portale/index.php), where he taught courses on general physics, nanotechnology and biophotonics. Moreover, he is founder and director of BIONEM (Bio and Nano engineering for Medicine) laboratory (www.bionem.it). 
Since 2007 visiting Professor at IUSS (University Institute of Advanced Study) in Pavia (http://www.iusspavia.it/). Since July 1th 2009, he became director of Nanostructures Department of Italian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Genoa head quarter via Morego 30 (http://www.iit.it). He is in the editorial board of different international scientific journal: 
1. Journal of Optic A (http://iopscience.iop.org/1464-4258/page/Editorial%20Board). 
2. Frontiers in Nanobiotechnology (www.frontiersin.org) 
3. Review Editor in Condensed Matter Physics, part of the journal(s) Frontiers in Physics. 

Recent advances in Nanoscience allow the realization of devices able to spatially confine the electric field at the surface of a noble metal and enhance it by several orders of magnitude. This can be used for light enhanced spectroscopy and further, conduction electrons at a metal-dielectric interface can be excited by incident light into an extended surface electronic state, called Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP), once momentum constraints have been released.

During the lecture it will be presented selected topics from our research activity. In particular it will be highlighted the results on single molecule detection, Plasmon Polariton conversion to Hot electrons and a final application on Self-similar Ag-nanosphere based plasmonic devices, fabricated using e-beam and electroless techniques, for characterization of complex mixtures of bio-molecules. Major novelty resides in combined use of micro and nano-structures. The common aspects between the presented devices, is the design and the good and detailed control of the fabrication of the nanostructures, whose reproducible performances allows the identification of peptides content and state in the single molecule regime.